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保护俄罗斯的游牧民族

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保护俄罗斯的游牧民族

纳塔莉亚Yakovleva博士’s research is taking her to northern Siberia, where indigenous people are under pressure from mining.

Mining, indigenous communities and metals may seem like unrelated topics. Yet they all come together in the research of 太阳2首页大学 academic 纳塔莉亚Yakovleva博士.

Natalia is a Senior Lecturer in International 业务 Strategy. 她目前的研究项目, ‘Russian Extractive Industry and 全球 Resource 治理’, 让她远离英国——去 她的家乡在西伯利亚东北部的雅库特地区.

在这里,最 经济活动与采矿有关 – an expanding industry that’s moving into new areas as demand for metals used in green technologies increases.

这是 also home to indigenous communities living a traditional nomadic lifestyle of reindeer-herding, 植物采摘活动和狩猎.

often-conflicting needs of mining and indigenous groups Natalia的研究重点是什么.

的 nomadic people whose lives are increasingly affected by mining in Siberia.

“俄罗斯是 one of the largest mineral producers in the world”,她说. “A lot of the mines are in the North Siberian Far East – an area that is home to indigenous people. 的y are small in number, but their 经济 activities take large tracts of land.

“在某些领域, mining settlements and transportation infrastructure are built, such as mines, pipelines, electric lines, and railways. 所有的 这使土著人民不断流离失所.”

Pipelines and railways can cut across the migration paths of reindeer herds, while noise from industrial activity can disrupt the animals hunted by indigenous groups.

娜塔莉亚一直在关注这一情况 analysing how the Russian government and mining companies try to offset these negative consequences.

一个更好的交易

Mining companies across Russia already carry out environmental impact assessments in line with Russian federal law. 但是在2010年 regional government of Yakutia introduced a new social impact assessment (ethnological expert review) specifically designed 对于土著居民 conducting culturally traditional activities.

“它有 improved the procedure of compensation 对于土著居民纳塔莉亚表示:“. “In the past they would get a one-off payment for disturbance to the land. Now they are getting annual payments for the duration of the mining project.”

俄罗斯联邦政府现在是 considering ways to roll out similar legislation across the country雅库特人的经历. “At the moment, the region is a pioneer纳塔莉亚表示:“.

Russia is one of the largest mineral producers in the world. A lot of the mines are in the North Siberian Far East – an area that is home to indigenous people.

纳塔莉亚Yakovleva博士

她一直 engaging with indigenous people, local and federal authorities, mining companies and NGOs 这是她研究的一部分, drawing out ways that the compensation procedures could be improved as they’re extended nationwide.

潜在的 areas for improvement include extending land ownership rights 允许土著群体拥有 否决新的采矿工程.

根据现行的补偿法例, indigenous peoples register their use of specific tracts of land, 但不能要求所有权.

Natalia explains: “One of the regional members of parliament is proposing a legal change for the indigenous peoples of the north to have land ownership rights. 这是 相当的革命. Indigenous people conduct their traditional activities in forests, 森林属于联邦政府.”

Indigenous people also have little say in where mining companies set up. 因为他们的游牧生活方式, they may not receive notification of public consultations and therefore miss the chance to have their voices heard.

“他们经常被排除在外,”娜塔莉亚说. “有 no specific procedures to seek consent from indigenous people.”

教育和e-minerals

一些 indigenous groups are also interested in improved educational and employment opportunities.

“的y say that there are challenges in moving from traditional natural resource activities to industrial activities纳塔莉亚表示:“. “他们也 want to be more involved in environmental monitoring, because they have traditional knowledge of the area and would be willing to partner with companies.”

纳塔莉亚的计划 monitor progress of the all-Russia social impact assessment and compensation procedures 对于土著居民.

和雅库特, where such legislation has been active since 2010, 我们可以看看它的效果如何. “No one actually knows the consequences for indigenous groups, whether their welfare has improved and how it has affected their traditional 经济 activities.”

A Russian nomadic child riding a reindeer in northern Siberia.

As the world moves towards greener forms of energy and technology, 不同类型的采矿将成为焦点. 纳塔莉亚说:“ new frontiers are regions that will be producing e-minerals, such as lithium for lithium batteries and electric vehicles.”

This could also be the new frontier for Natalia’s research. 她说:“我 interested in whether they are going to reproduce the negative political, 经济, 社会生态后果 我们现在看到的是采矿.”